Prevalensi, Karakteristik dan Faktor Resiko Prediabetes di Wilayah Pesisir, Pegunungan dan Perkotaan

Iis Noventi, Rusdianingseh Rusdianingseh, Muhammad Khafid
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Abstract


Latar Belakang : Prediabetes merupakan kondisi kadar glukosa darah diatas normal, tapi belum memenuhi standar diagnosis diabetes. Kondisi ini  bila tidak dilakukan perubahan gaya hidup, dapat jatuh pada diagnosis diabetes. Penelitian ini bertujuan memperoleh prevalensi, karakteristik dan faktor resiko prediabetes di wilayah pesisir, pegunungan dan perkotaan. Methode : Penelitian ini merupakan studi prevalensi pada populasi penduduk pegunungan, pesisir dan perkotaan yang melibatkan 90 subjek berusia 40 - ≥ 65 tahun  ( 30 di wilayah pegunungan, 30 subjek di wilayah pesisir dan 30 subjek di wilayah perkotaan) dilakukan di wilayah pegunungan, pesisir dan perkotaan  dipilih secara acak dengan teknik simple random sampling selama periode bulan Mei – Juni 2019. Pada subjek di lakukan anamnesa menggunakan Kuesioner  sesuai kriteria American Diabetes Association dan juga di lakukan pemeriksaan fisik  dan pemeriksaan laboratorium.Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan SPSS versi 21.0 untuk Windows. Analisis deskriptif menggambarkan distribusi variabel penelitian dengan persentase dan rata-rata. Uji chi-square digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara gaya dengan Prediabetes/diabetes. Hasil : Prevalensi prediabetes diperoleh dari hasil pemeriksaan GDA di wilayah pegunungan sebesar 83,3%, pesisir43,4%, perkotaan 73,4%.Karakteristik prediabetes di di wilayah pegunungan adalah jenis kelamin perempuan, usia 40-54 tahun, hipertensi, dan obesitas. Di wilayah pesisir adalah jenis kelamin perempuan, usia 40-54 tahun, hipertensi. Di wilayah perkotaan adalah jenis kelamin perempuan, usia 40-54 tahun, obesitas, dan tidak aktif beraktifitas. Faktor resiko di wilayah pegunungan adalah asam urat dan kolesterol (p <0,05), di wilayah pesisir adalah asam urat, kolesterol dan penyakit pembuluh darah lainnya (p <0,05), sedangkan di wilayah perkotaan adalah riwayat keturunan dan kolesterol (p <0,05). Kesimpulan: Prevalensi prediabetes di wilayah pesisir sebesar ( 43,3%), di wilayah pegunungan sebesar (83,3%), di wilayah perkotaan sebesar (73,4%) Diskusi : Diwilayah pegunungan prevalesi prediabetes lebih besar di bandingkan dengan wilayah perkotaan dan pesisir karena hipertensi dan obesitas. Hipertensi  juga merupakan faktor resiko tertinggi penyebab prediabetes pada masyarakat pesisir, sedangkan obesitas menjadi faktor resiko prediabetes di wilayah perkotaan. Perlu dilakukan strategi pencegahan baik terhadap prediabetes maupun progresivitas prediabetes menjadi diabetes dan diharapkan dapat menambah keahlian tenaga medis utuk mengenali prediabetes, mengidentifikasi orang –orang yang beresiko tinggi prediabetes dan memberikan penatalaksanaan yang tepat agar kejadian diabetes dan komplikasi dapat di kurangi

 

Background : Prediabetes is a condition of blood glucose levels above normal, but does not yet meet the standard diagnosis of diabetes. This condition if lifestyle changes are not made, can fall on the diagnosis of diabetes. This study aims to obtain the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for prediabetes in coastal, mountainous and urban areas.

Method : This study is a prevalence study in mountainous, coastal and urban populations involving 90 subjects aged 40 - ≥ 65 years (30 in mountainous areas, 30 subjects in coastal areas and 30 subjects in urban areas) conducted in mountainous, coastal and cities were randomly selected by simple random sampling technique during the period May - June 2019. On the subject, anamnesia was performed using a questionnaire according to the American Diabetes Association criteria and physical examination and laboratory examination were also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 for Windows. Descriptive analysis illustrates the distribution of research variables by percentages and averages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between style and Prediabetes / diabetes. Results : The prevalence of prediabetes was obtained from the results of GDA examination in the mountainous region of 83.3%, coastal43.4%, urban 73.4%. The characteristics of prediabetes in the mountainous region were female sex, age 40-54 years, hypertension, and obesity . In coastal areas are female sex, age 40-54 years, hypertension. In urban areas are female sex, age 40-54 years, obesity, and not active activity. Risk factors in mountainous regions are uric acid and cholesterol (p <0.05), in coastal areas are uric acid, cholesterol and other vascular diseases (p <0.05), whereas in urban areas are history of heredity and cholesterol (p <0.05). Conclusion : The prevalence of prediabetes in coastal areas is (43.3%), in mountainous areas is (83.3%), in urban areas is (73.4%). Discussion : Prevention strategies for both prediabetes and the progression of prediabetes to diabetes are needed and are expected to increase the expertise of medical personnel to recognize prediabetes, identify people at high risk of prediabetes and provide appropriate management so that the incidence of diabetes and complications can be reduced


Keywords


Prevalensi; Karakteristik; Faktor Resiko; Prediabetes

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DOI: 10.26699/jnk.v6i3.ART.p371-381


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