Factors Triggering Anxiety for Pregnant Women during the Covid 19 Pandemic

Triatmi Andri Yanuarini, Shinta Kristianti, Finta Isti Kundarti, Moh. Ali Mansur, Sumy Dwi Antono
Abstract views : 3 | PDF views : 2


Covid-19 infection is more common in expectant mothers. than people who are not expecting. This causes pregnant women to experience anxiety and even depression if they are not treated immediately. The pandemic caused by COVID-19 can psychologically cause increased levels of tension and anxiety brought on by worry about spreading disease and its effects. The objective of the study was to identify the triggering factors for anxiety in during the Covid-19 epidemic, expectant mothers. The design of the study was cross-sectional research design. The sample included several expecting mothers in Mojoroto District, Kediri City as many as 67 respondents. The data collection used questionnaire. The data analysis used ordinal regression. The results showed the p-value of pregnancy complications (0.034), limited food ingredients (0.047), history of depression (0.000), environment (0.001), loss of caregiver (0.000) which meant these variables affected the occurrence of anxiety during the Covid-19 epidemic in expecting mothers. COVID-19 increased the risk of complications in expecting mothers, besides that social restrictions also caused limited food ingredients, difficulty getting caregivers. This caused pregnant women to experience depression. The covid pandemic had also caused many deaths and generating worry in expectant mothers. The conclusion is that the triggering factors for pregnancy-related stress and the Covid-19 epidemic pregnancy complications, limited food ingredients, a history of depression, anxiety about the environment and anxiety about losing a caregiver


covid-19, anxiety factors, pregnant women

Full Text:



Abdul Latif, NI, Mohamed Ismail, NA, Loh, SYE, Nur Azurah, AG, Midin, M., Shah, SA, & Kalok, A. (2022). Psychological Distress and COVID-19 Related Anxiety among Malaysian Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(8), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084590

Ahmad, M., & Vismara, L. (2021). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on women's mental health during pregnancy: A rapid evidence review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(13). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137112

Avalos, LA, Nance, N., Badon, SE, Young-Wolff, K., Ames, J., Zhu, Y., Hedderson, MM, Ferrara, A., Zerbo, O., Greenberg, M., & Croen, L.A. (2022). Associations of COVID-19-Related Health, Healthcare and Economic Factors With Prenatal Depression and Anxiety. International Journal of Public Health, 67(May), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/ijph.2022.1604433

Awad-Sirhan, N., Simó-Teufel, S., Molina-Muñoz, Y., Cajiao-Nieto, J., & Izquierdo-Puchol, MT (2022). Factors associated with prenatal stress and anxiety in pregnant women during COVID-19 in Spain. Enfermeria Clinica, 32, S5–S13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2021.10.006

Aziz, M.A. (2020). Recommendations for Handling Corona Virus Infection (Covid-19) in Maternal (Pregnancy, Maternity and Postpartum). In Management of Corona Virus Infection in Maternal (Vol. 1, Issue 3).

Benke, C., Autenrieth, L., Asselmann, E., & Pané-Farré, CA (2020). Lockdown, quarantine measures, and social distancing: Associations with depression, anxiety and distress at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic among adults from Germany. Psychiatry Research [revista en Internet] 2020 [accesso 2 de mayo de 2021]; 293(20. Psychiatry Res., 293(January), 113462. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500345/pdf/main.pdf

BPS City of Kediri. (2020). Number of Pregnant Women Visiting K1, Visiting K4, Chronic Energy Deficiency (KEK), and Receiving Iron (Fe) Tablets in Kediri City, 2012‒2019. Central Bureau of Statistics for the City of Kediri.

Brooks, SK, Webster, RK, Smith, LE, Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, GJ (2020). The Psychological Impact of Quarantine and How to Reduce It: Rapid Review of the Evidence. SSRN Electronic Journal, January. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3532534

Bryson H, Mensah F, Price A, Gold L, Mudiyanselage SB , Kenny B, Dakin P, Bruce T, Noble K, Kemp L, GoldfeldI S. (2021). Clinical, financial and social impacts of COVID-19 and their associations with mental health for mothers and children experiencing adversity in Australia. Plos One.2021 Sep 13;16(9):e0257357https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34516564/

Cui, C., Zhai, L., Sznajder, KK, Wang, J., Sun, X., Wang, X., Zhang, W., Yang, F., & Yang, X. (2021). Prenatal anxiety and the associated factors among Chinese pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic——a smartphone questionnaire survey study. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03624-1

E., JK, Atkinson, L., Bennett, T., Jack, SM, & Gonzales, A. (2021). COVID-19 and mental health during pregnancy: The Importance of cognitive appraisal and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1161–1169.

Fitzpatrick K, Harris C, & Drawve G. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and the Mental Health Consequences in America. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy [revista en Internet] 2020 [accesso 14 de febrero de 2021]; 12:1-5. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12, 17–21. https://content.apa.org/fulltext/2020-38568-001.pdf

Giesbrecht, GF, Rojas, L., Patel, S., Kuret, V., & Mackinnon, AL (2020). Fear of COVID-19, mental health, and pregnancy outcomes in the pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic study Fear of COVID-19 and pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 299(January), 483–491. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.12.057

Grumi, S., Provenzi, L., Accorsi, P., Biasucci, G., Cavallini, A., Decembrino, L., Falcone, R., Fazzi, EM, Gardella, B., Giacchero, R., Guerini , P., Grossi, E., Magnani, ML, Mariani, EM, Nacinovich, R., Pantaleo, D., Pisoni, C., Prefumo, F., Sabatini, C., … Borgatti, R. (2021) . Depression and Anxiety in Mothers Who Were Pregnant During the COVID-19 Outbreak in Northern Italy: The Role of Pandemic-Related Emotional Stress and Perceived Social Support. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12(September), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.716488

Ilska, M., Brandt-Salmeri, A., Kołodziej-Zaleska, A., Preis, H., Rehbein, E., & Lobel, M. (2022). Anxiety among pregnant women during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12275-5

Iwanowicz-Palus, G., Mróz, M., Korda, A., Marcewicz, A., & Palus, A. (2022). Perinatal Anxiety among Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052603

Kassaeva, P., Belova, E., Shashina, E., Shcherbakov, D., Makarova, V., Ershov, B., Sukhov, V., Zabroda, N., Sriraam, N., Mitrokhin, O., & Zhernov, Y. (2022). Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups. Encyclopedia, 2(2), 912–927. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020060

Kicia, M., Iwanowicz-Palus, G., Korżyńska–Piętas, M., Skurzak, A., Krysa, J., & Szlendak, B. (2018). The selection of strategies for coping with stress at midwife and nurse's work. Journal of Education, Health and Sport., 8(3), 312–320.

Lequertier, B., McLean, MA, Kildea, S., King, S., Keedle, H., Gao, Y., Boyle, JA, Agho, K., & Dahlen, HG (2022). Perinatal Depression in Australian Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Birth in the Time of COVID-19 (BITTOC) Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(9), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095062

Liu, J., Hung, P., Alberg, AJ, Hair, NI, Whitaker, KM, Simon, J., & Taylor, SK (2021). Mental health among pregnant women with COVID-19 related stressors and worries in the United States. Birth, 48, 470–479.

Luo, M., Guo, L., Yu, M., Jiang, W., & Wang, H. (2020). Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource center with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19 . The COVID-19 resource center is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company's public news and information. Psychiatry Research, 291(January).

Luong, TC, Pham, TTM, Nguyen, MH, Do, AQ, Pham, LV, Nguyen, HC, Nguyen, HC, Ha, TH, Dao, HK, Trinh, MV, Do, TV, Nguyen, HQ, Nguyen, TTP, Tran, CQ, Tran, KV, Duong, TT, Pham, HX, Do, TT, Nguyen, PB, … Duong, T. Van. (2021). Fear, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: impacts of healthy eating behavior and health literacy. Annals of Medicine, 53(1), 2120–2131. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.2001044

Morris, JR, Jaswa, E., Kaing, A., Hariton, E., Andrusier, M., Aliaga, K., Davis, M., Cedars, MI, & Huddleston, HG (2022). Early pregnancy anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic: preliminary findings from the UCSF ASPIRE study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 22(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-022-04595-1

Özdin, S., & Bayrak Özdin, Ş. (2020). Levels and predictors of anxiety, depression and health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkish society: The importance of gender. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(5), 504–511. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020927051

Puertas-Gonzalez, JA, Romero-Gonzalez, B., Mariño-Narvaez, C., Cruz-Martinez, M., & Peralta-Ramirez, MI (2021). La Cognitiva-Conductual Therapy Como Amortiguadora De Los Efectos Psicológicos Negativos Del Confinamiento Por La Covid-19 En Mujeres Embarazadas. Salud Publica, 95(12), 10.

Rohmah, MK, & Nurdianto, AR (2020). Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Pregnant Women and Infants: a Literature Review. Medica Hospitalia, 7(1A), 329–336.

Rhodes A,Khireddine S,SmithAD.Experiences, Attitudes, and Needs of Users of a Pregnancy and Parenting App (Baby Buddy) During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mixed Methods Study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2020 Dec 9;8(12):e23157. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33264100/

Sianipar, K. (2018). Factors Affecting the Level of Anxiety of Pregnant Women in Facing Primigravida Labor Processes in Independent Practice Midwives, Bosar Maligas District, Simalungun Regency. Journal of Reproductive Health, 3(1), 10–21.

Sukaedah, E., & Fadilah, L. (2016). Correlation between Education Level and Husband's Support with Levels of Anxiety in Primigravida Trimester III Mothers. Journal of Medicine (Health Information Media), 3(April), 56–62.

Tyastuti, S. (2016). Pregnancy Midwifery Care. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

Vindegaard, N., & Benros, ME (2020). Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource center with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19 . The COVID-19 resource center is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company's public news and information. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89(January), 531–542.

Wilson, AN, Sweet, L., Vasilenski, V., Hauck, Y., Wynter, K., Kuliukas, L., Szabo, RA, Homer, CSE, & Bradifield, Z. (2022). Australian women's experiences of receiving maternity care during the Covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional national survey. Birth, 49, 30–39.

Zhoua J, Havens KL, Starnes CP, Pickeringc TA, Brito NH, Hendrixe CL, Thomasone ME, Vatalaroe TC, Smith BA. (2021). Changes in social support of pregnant and postnatal mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Midwifery. Dec;103:103162. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34649034/

DOI: 10.26699/jnk.v10i1.ART.p121-130


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan (Journal of Ners and Midwifery)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan (Journal of Ners and Midwifery) p-ISSN: 2355-052X. e-ISSN: 2548-3811 is published by STIKes Patria Husada Blitar.

Indexed On :